Access Denied. Practice and Policy of Global Internet by Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski,

By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain

Many nations all over the world block or filter out web content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but additionally on the subject of sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for traditional voters. entry Denied files and analyzes net filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, supplying the 1st carefully carried out learn of this accelerating pattern. web filtering happens in at the very least 40 states around the globe together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. comparable web content material keep watch over mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S., and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of worldwide web filtering undertaken by way of the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for web and Society at Harvard legislations college, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford net Institute at Oxford college, and the college of Cambridge) and hoping on paintings by way of nearby specialists and an in depth community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, criminal, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from various views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and barriers of the know-how that powers it, the relevance of foreign legislations, moral issues for companies that offer states with the instruments for blockading and filtering, and the consequences of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on web applied sciences for speaking their missions. experiences on web content material legislation in 40 varied international locations persist with, with each one nation profile outlining the categories of content material blocked through classification and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain

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18 Robert Faris and Nart Villeneuve zone has not historically filtered the Internet, while the predominant ISP for the rest of the country has consistently filtered the Internet. Modifications can be made to the blocking efforts of a country by the authorities at any time. Sites can be added or removed at their discretion. For example, during our tests in Iran the Web site of the New York Times was blocked, but for only one day. Some countries have also been suspected of introducing temporary filtering around key time periods such as elections.

The ISP Cybernet in Pakistan also uses this technique. The ISP Batelco in Bahrain uses this technique for some specific opposition sites. Batelco did not, however, completely remove the entry (the MX record for e-mail still remains). 4. 1. ’’ Another South Korean ISP, KORNET, makes blocked sites resolve to an ominous police Web site. 10 Our tests revealed that there is often a combination of IP blocking and DNS tampering. It may be a signal that countries are responding to the outcry concerning the overblocking associated with IP blocking and moving to the targeting of specific domain names with DNS tam- Measuring Global Internet Filtering 15 pering.

In Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, filtering does not end with socially sensitive material such as pornography and gambling but expands into the political realm. Once the technical and administrative mechanisms for blocking Internet content have been put into place, it is a trivial matter to expand the scope of Internet censorship. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the implementation of filtering is often carried by private sector actors— normally the ISPs—using software developed in the United States.

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