# Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s) by Lower S.K.

By Lower S.K.

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Example text

The term acid rain is therefore taken to mean rain whose pH is controlled by substances other than CO2 and which can lower the pH into the range of 3-4. The major culprits are sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids. Most of the H2 SO4 comes from the photooxidation of SO2 released from the burning of fossil fuels and from industrial operations such as smelting. As shown in Fig. 14, the atmosphere receives both acidic and basic substances from natural sources (volcanic emissions, salt spray, windblown dust and microbial metabolism) as well as from pollution.

75 for acetic acid. 0005 M. 3 unit. 3, By following this example, you should be able to construct a similar diagram for any monoprotic acid, weak or strong; the only numbers you need are the pKa of the acid, and its nominal concentration [A− ]. The resulting graph will provide a reasonably precise indication of the concentrations of all four related species in the solution over the entire pH range. The only major uncertainty occurs within about one pH unit of the pKa , where the lines undergo changes of slope from 0 (horizontal) to ±1.

That is, there is no pH at which the reaction H2 A −→ HA− can be said to be “complete” while at the same time the second step HA− −→ A2− has occurred to only a negligible extent. Thus the rise in the pH that would normally be expected as HA− is produced will be prevented by consumption of OH− in the second step which will be well underway at that point; only when all steps are completed and hydroxide ion is no longer being consumed will the pH rise. Two other examples of polyprotic acids whose titration curves whose shapes do not reveal all of the equivalence points are sulfuric and phosphoric acids (Fig.