Advances in Polymer Friction and Wear by Lieng-Huang Lee (auth.), Lieng-Huang Lee (eds.)

By Lieng-Huang Lee (auth.), Lieng-Huang Lee (eds.)

Polymers and polymer composites were increasinqly utilized in position of metals for varied industries; specifically, aerospace, automobile, bio-medical, laptop, electrophotography, fiber, and rubber tire. hence, an knowing of the interactions among polymers and among a polymer and a inflexible counterface can improve the functions of polymers below a variety of environments. In meet­ ing this want, polymer tribology has developed to accommodate friction, lubrication and put on of polymeric fabrics and to respond to the various difficulties regarding polymer-polymer interactions or oolymer­ inflexible physique interactions. the aim of this primary overseas Symposium used to be to introduce advances in reviews of polymer friction and put on, in particular in Britain and the U.S.S.R. such a lot prior experiences of the Fifties have been influenced via the expansion of rubber tire industries. non-stop study during the Sixties has broadened the bottom to incorporate different polymers corresponding to nylon, polyolefins, and poly tetra­ fluoroethylene, or PTFE. even though, a lot of this paintings was once released in engineering or physics journals and barely in chemistry journals; most likely, the latter have regularly thought of the paintings to be too utilized or too inappropriate. now not until eventually contemporary years have chemists began to notice phrases equivalent to tribo-chemistry or mechano­ chemistry and progressively discover an crucial position during this box of polymer tribology. therefore, we have been hoping to carry the expertise modern in this SympOSium, particularly to the vast majority of contributors, polymer chemists by means of training.

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L. M. ): Would you comment on a very basic question: What is the minimum thickness of adsorbed films required to mask the effect of the substrates? D. Tabor: At its simplest we may answer this question as follows. A monolayer of adsorbed molecules is sufficient to mask the surface forces emanating from contacting substrates. Direct measurement of van der Waals forces (I), adhesion measurements in high vacuum (2) and contact angle measurements (3) illustrate this point. A much thicker layer is required to prevent mechanical interaction between the contacting surfaces.

But in view of the strictures levelled in this review at other workers this cannot be pressed any further. More work is required to clarify the problem. o00)~ HDPE (M-10,OOO) ,,--- D-l Calcium Stearate o Figure 9. Shear strength (at a fixed contact pressure) of a number of organic materials as a function of temperature. Incidentally the presence of a shear strength s = So + ap suggests that the frictional force may finally appear in the form F = S+ J,lW (4 ) v. 22 TABOR This resembles the binomial relation suggested by Coulomb and much favored by some workers.

__o 30 1:: GLASS ""'-.. - _ _ ... -~ ~STEEL(v8) '0 OL----------L----------~-- o Fig. 6. 10 20 ______ ~ ________ 30 ~ 40 ACRYLONITRILE IN SKN RUBBER, % Effect of Polarity of Counter Body on Friction Force of Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Rubber {Data of A. Konstantinova (Ref. 49)) 49 SURFACE ENERGETICS These data 49 were originally presented in such a way without realizing the specific interaction between these two polymers. We plot their data in Fig. 6 and find that the increase of Fa with the nitrile content is the best evidence for the Keesom type dipoledipole interaction.

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