By Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
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Extra info for ADVANCES IN SPINAL FUSION Molecular Science, Biomechanics, and C
Deramond H, Depriester C, Toussaint P, Galibert P. Percutaneous vertebroplasty. Semin. Musculoskelet. Radiol 1997; 1:285–295. 65. Jasper LE, Deramond H, Mathis JM, Belkoff SM. The effect of monomer-to-powder ratio on the material properties of Cranioplastic. Bone 1999; 25:27S–29S. 66. Belkoff SM, Sanders JC. The effect of the monomer-to-powder ratio on the material properties of acrylic bone cement. J. Biomed. Mater. Res 2002; 63:396–399. 67. Svartling N, Pfaffli P, Tarkkanen L. Methylmethacrylate blood levels in patients with femoral neck fracture.
The relationship between loss of bone mineral density and skeletal weakening has been well established. While the entire skeleton is affected, particular regions are at proportionately higher risk for fracture. The vertebral column is the most frequently injured, followed by the distal radius (wrist) and upper femur (hip) . Within the spine, there is a predilection for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) in the upper lumbar and lower thoracic spine [13,16]. VCFs present different clinical challenges than wrist or hip fractures.
A. I. INTRODUCTION Spine care is trending towards procedures that are less invasive and motion sparing. Among the most innovative are kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). They are performed percutaneously and focus on restoring the mechanical properties of the injured vertebra without fusing motion segments. These techniques have filled a void between prolonged nonoperative care and open surgical procedures by offering a highly effective treatment for pain relief with minimal risks to patients who otherwise would have few, if any, alternatives.