An Introduction to Ecological Economics by Costanza, Robert

By Costanza, Robert

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The relevant component here is the tight relationship between c­arbon released and the scale of the material economy. 44 tonnes/capita in 2010, according to the International Energy Agency. This has lead to quickly rising ­concentrations of CO2, reaching 400 parts per million (ppm) for the first time in May 2013. This is a significant event because many scientists are predicting that 350 ppm is the safe upper limit for CO2 in our atmosphere (Hansen et al. 2008). To the extent energy use parallels economic activity, carbon e­ missions are an index of the scale of the material economy.

Kaldor, N. (1958). Capital accumulation and economic growth. In The Essential Kaldor. New York: Holmes and Meier, 229–281. Kaldor, N. (1967). Strategic Factors in Economic Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic growth and income inequality. American Economic Review 45(1): 1–28. , K. Rogoff, et al. (2003). Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries: Some Empirical Evidence. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. Skott, P. and P. Auerbach. (1995).

4 Atmospheric Aerosol Loading Atmospheric aerosol loading has a critical effect on both the climate system and on human health at regional and global scales. Since the pre-industrial era, humans have doubled global concentrations of most aerosols (Tsigaridis et al. 2006). The effects on the climate system can occur through various methods. Aerosols scatter incoming radiation back into space (Charlson et al. 1991, 1992) or indirectly influence cloud reflectivity and persistence (Twomey 1977; Albrecht 1989).

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