Ancient Rhetorical Theories of Simile and Comparison (Loeb by Marsh H. McCall Jr.

By Marsh H. McCall Jr.

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This is the expanded meaning of the phrase above from chapter 4 (analogous to Aristotle's criticism of the poetical metaphor in chapter 3). In chapter 10, ElKdJV is said to be able to instruct, just as metaphor does, but to be less pleasant or attractive (~ov) than metaphor because it is more extended. The exact sense of Tjov- in this context is made dear earlier in the passage. Pleasure (TO Tjov) results from something learned easily, and when Aristotle states that ElKdJV is less pleasant than metaphor because it is longer he is also saying that ElKdJV instructs less readily than metaphor.

9 Actually in a scholium on Aristotle referring to Theodorus; see above, p. 3. Ross's OCT. 8 W. A. Pickard-Cambridge's Oxford translation, ed. Ross, is used for the Topica. 9 See be1ow, p. 188f. 6 7 Aristotle The identifying features of 7TUPUßO'Af] do not, in Aristotle' s , mind, s~em to include a particular form. ). Translated literally, the illustration of 7TUPUßo'A~ would begin: "Those selected by lot must not rule, for that" is like just as iE ... OV yap WU7TEP EZ) is used, making the illustration in form partly a simile and partly conditionaL Aristotle is simply imprecise in choice of words here-a fault he would probably avoid if form were cruciaL The instance ofhistorical example is phrased "we must do thus-and-such, because ....

1TapaßoAf] denotes more than mere comparison of opposite viewpoints; dVTL1TapaßoA~ is restricted to this one sphere. 17 Aristotle' s most extensive and intricate discussion of comparison comes in his treatment of ElKClw in Book III of the Rhetoric. To look for anything wholly straightforward and consistent in this book is fruitless. Like the rest of the Rhetoric, it probably was formed from lectures. 1414b2 and bIo. " At 1414bn, it is said to be fLEpOS TL TWV TrlaT€WV (" apart of the arguments"), recalling the indusion of TrapaßoA-r] in Rhet.

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