By A. Harden
This sourcebook offers specially-prepared translations from Greek and Latin texts throughout a number of genres which provide a wide-reaching feel of where of the non-human animal within the ethical sign in of Classical Greece and Rome. From theories of the origins of animal existence and vegetarianism, literary makes use of of animal imagery and its position in formulating cultural id, to vibrant descriptions of vivisection, force-feeding, extensive farming, agricultural and armed forces exploitation, and special bills of animal-hunting and the alternate in unique animal items: the battleground of the fashionable animal rights debate is the following given its historic beginning in a range of approximately two hundred passages of Classical authors from Homer to Porphyry.
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Extra resources for Animals in the Classical World: Ethical Perspectives from Greek and Roman Texts
And concerning the first generation [of men] of the universe, this is the account which we have received. But he says that the first men to be born led an disorderly and bestial life, seeking pasture in a scattered way and taking as food the most pleasant herbs and wild fruit from the trees. Then, as they were attacked by wild beasts, they came to help each other, learning from mutual experiences, and when gathered together in this way through fear, they slowly came to recognize characteristics among one another.
Later it happened that they were born from one another. And men were separated from the other animals, and set up leaders, customs, arts, cities (and so on). Mind (nous), he says, is an integral part of all creatures alike. For each of the animals use mind, some rather slowly, others more quickly. The details are rather difficult to piece together, though it seems that rather than expressing the view that mankind occupies a naturally privileged state, ‘Archelaus saw the development of culture and technologies as an inevitable result of the seemingly accidental human possession of nous to a greater degree than the other animals ...
And indeed it is completely off the mark to think that that intellect is in the blood: for many animals are without blood, and of those that have blood the parts of the body that have the least share of it are those which concern perception. [ ... ] It is also way off to suppose that the existence of the particular abilities [of men] are due to the composition of the blood in their particular parts, so as the tongue would be the cause of good speech (legein, from logos) or the hands the cause of workmanship, and not in fact in the rank of instruments.