Arthropods and Human Skin by John O’Donel Alexander MB, ChB, FRCP (Glasgow) (auth.)

By John O’Donel Alexander MB, ChB, FRCP (Glasgow) (auth.)

To the entomologist all bugs have six legs; the layman has a tendency to exploit the time period "insect" to incorporate the eight-legged spiders and mites. these kinds of creatures are safely categorized as arthropods. Many hundreds of thousands of the loads of millions of known species of arthropods are present in the human environment-domestic, occupational and rec­ reational. these species that are obligate parasites of guy, the human scabies mite and the top and physique lice, produce primary scientific syndromes. they continue to be vital in scientific perform and feature been the topic of loads of contemporary examine. this can be starting to throw a lot mild at the immunological mechanisms which mostly make sure the reactions of the host. Dr. Alexander has supplied a close survey of this paintings. The wasps, bees, ants and different Hymenoptera that can sting guy in self-defence may cause painful, even deadly reactions. the hot paintings in this vital topic has additionally been completely reviewed. each dermatologist of expertise will admit that he sees many sufferers in whom he makes a prognosis of "insect bites", if he has the arrogance to take action, or of "papular urticaria" or "prurigo" while he lacks such self assurance, often simply because he's at a loss to understand which arthropod might be implicated. In his survey of the large literature within the entomological, public future health and dermatology journals Dr. Alexander has supplied a useful advisor within which the ideas to those medical mysteries will be sought.

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The exit-lid is clearly shown. This bears a group of about 16 thick-rimmed openings associated with respiration . (From Maunder 1983b, by kind permission of the author and the Editor of the Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Scanning electron micrograph taken by Mr. D. Smith, Department of Electron Microscopy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) Fig. 7. Body louse eggs (nits) around the seam of a skirt which were only fully revealed on turning back the loose hem.

3) can spray such noxious fluids, which are effected, it is believed, by a build-up of haemolymph pressure which is released from the reservoir only when the closure muscles (acting as a sphincter) are deliberately relaxed. Full details of cockroach toxins can be found in Roth and Alsop (1978) (see also Chap. 24, Millipede Bums). 4 indicates those species which are said to affect man. According to Roth and Willis (1957), these species have been shown naturally or experimentally to be vectors of organisms or to bite man.

This cement cannot be dissolved without at the same time destroying the hair (Nutull 1917c). The operculum is provided with perforations which enable the developing embryo to obtain air. Hatching is achieved by accumulation of swallowed air and amniotic fluid behind the embryo, pushing it against the operculum. The latter is pierced by tiny cutting hooks on the embryonic head and the nymph is forcibly expelled head first. This is a speedy process so as to avoid entrapping the nymph in the rapidly solidifying amniotic fluid, as may occasionally occur (Nuttall 1917c; Buxton 1947).

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