Basic ESD and IO design by Sanjay Dabral, Timothy J. Maloney

By Sanjay Dabral, Timothy J. Maloney

The 1st accomplished consultant to ESD security and I/O designBasic ESD and I/O layout is the 1st e-book dedicated to ESD (electrostatic discharge) defense and input/output layout. Addressing the growing to be call for in for high-speed I/O designs, it bridges the space among ESD learn and present VLSI layout practices and offers a much-needed reference for working towards engineers who're often known as upon to benefit the topic at the job.This quantity offers an built-in therapy of ESD, I/O, and method parameter interactions that either I/O designers and approach designers can use. It examines key elements in I/O and ESD layout and checking out, and is helping the reader contemplate ESD and reliability concerns up entrance while making I/O offerings. Emphasizing readability and ease, this publication makes a speciality of layout rules that may be utilized extensively as this dynamic box maintains to conform. uncomplicated ESD and I/O layout: * Describes innovations for design-oriented ESD safeguard * Explains structure tools that increase ESD defense designs * Addresses simple I/O designs, together with new difficulties reminiscent of combined voltage interfaces * Discusses fabrication features affecting ESD and I/O safety * Illustrates ideas utilizing various figures and examples * Expresses gadget physics when it comes to basic electric circuit types * Cross-references the cloth to plain texts within the fieldEssential for engineers in and somebody designing circuits, structures, or units for destiny applied sciences, uncomplicated ESD and I/O layout can also be an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate scholars excited about center VLSI layout or machine structure.

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Increased temperature reduces the forward voltage even further. 6). ~t~ ~ 2 ~~ o 2 4 6 8 Number ofdiodes Figure 2-21. Diode string turn-on voltage for two temperatures (~ = 6). 42 ESD PROTECTION METHODOLOGY It is seen that, due to the multiple cascading action, at each step a fraction of the current is passed on to the next. So after a few stages only a small fraction of the current remains. This can also be observed from a control point of view where a small current at the end of the chain can be amplified into a larger current at the first stage of the chain.

Now consider the N-well resistor. The current through the N-well starts saturating when the electric field approaches 1 x 104 V/cm. Beyond this velocity in the saturation electric field and for more current to flow, the N-well carrier concentration has to be modulated. The voltage and current relationship is now given by [Antinone, 19861 (2-20) and by differentiating the above, the space charge resistance can be found to be L' Rgc = 2AeSiEO VSL (2-21) The space-charge-limit resistance is plotted in Figure 2-31.

Current gain effects in the PNP bipolar transistor fonned by a diode stage. so that Now let Vo = In(lO)(nkT/q), which is 60mV for an ideal diode at room temperature. The analysis of Eq. m(m - I)) (2-10) where m is the number of cascaded diodes. If the diode chain does not consist of equally sized diodes, then the voltage can be calculated using Eq. 2-11, which accounts for the changes in the area: The effect of the parasitic action on a string of identical diodes is shown in Figure 2-21. The transistor action prevents linear buildup of forward voltage.

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