By Willie Jr. Pearson, Jr. Pearson
The publication offers major perception into the criteria that impact the careers of those scientists and, importantly, supplies voice to the numerous women and men who overcame discrimination, prejudice, and racism to construct winning medical careers.Although 70 percentage of these interviewed felt that their careers were hindered by way of discrimination, under a handful expressed any regrets approximately identifying a profession in chemistry. Remarkably, those chemists refused to permit racism to stifle their success.
Although a disproportionate variety of the chemists had their start origins within the South, despite the fact that, so much pursued their careers outdoors the area and branched out around the kingdom. lots of these participants had profound affects in either commercial and educational settings yet this booklet additionally chronicles the hardships that many confronted. This e-book presents the chance for a whole variety of voices, from a couple of views, to be heard.
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Additional resources for Beyond Small Numbers, Volume 4: Voices of African American PhD Chemists
16 Beyond Small Numbers: Voices of African American PhD Chemists Atkins (1949) attributed the under participation of African Americans in chemistry to: (1) substandard educational facilities for African Americans in the South; and (2) nationwide restricted employment opportunities prior to World War II. He contends that employment in the South for African Americans with degrees in chemistry was limited to low-paying teaching positions in underﬁnanced segregated institutions. These conditions led aspiring African Americans to seek training and jobs outside of the South.
In August 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established to assume The African American Presence in the American Chemistry Community 17 control of both the military and peaceful uses of atomic energy. In September 1949, the Soviet Union exploded a ﬁssion device. Within months, President Truman directed the AEC to proceed with the development of a fusion (hydrogen) bomb. S. exploded its ﬁrst fusion device in May 1951. By August 1953, the Soviets exploded a similar device (Skolnik & Reese, 1976).
In fact, the only other years the output equaled 20 or more during this period were in 1989 (N = 20) and 1994 (N = 23). All told, some 416 African Americans earned doctorates in chemistry during this 21 year period – that is a rate of about 20 per year (Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, 2002). S. citizens in 1999, 36 in 2000, and 36 in 2001. Much of this growth is attributable to the increasing participation of African American women in chemistry. Since 1995 (except for 1997), they averaged double ﬁgure.