Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the by John G. Neihardt

By John G. Neihardt

The recognized lifestyles tale of the Lakota healer and visionary, Nicholas Black Elk.

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Additional resources for Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux, The Premier Edition

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In any case, pastoralism and agriculture replaced hunting, fishing, and gathering as the economic basis of the society of Northern Europe and Scandinavia. The people in the Germanic homeland learned to breed and herd domestic animals for meat and milk, using slash-andburn methods to clear the forest in order to pen animals and grow grain. These technologies—agriculture, and domestication of animals to provide food—can support a much larger population per acre than hunting and fishing, and the settled lifestyle favors caring for dependent infants and children.

A prerequisite to language shift is societal bilingualism. This may remain quite stable over a long period but in the case of IndoEuropean expansions it was obviously a prelude to the adoption of Indo-European. (Mallory 1989, 258) The technological accomplishments of the newcomers would have had a halo effect on PIE, making the language attractive to peoples who had contact with the newcomers. In time the old language would die out, as there was less reason for parents to pass it on to their children.

The evidence includes both objects found in these regions, but far from their place of origin, and some very early borrowings from PIE into both Sámi (Lappish) and Finnic languages (Koivulehto 1988). Borrowing in the opposite direction, that is, Uralic loanwords in Germanic, though, is rare; even the Germanic languages’ non-Indo-European seafaring words mentioned earlier are not of Uralic origin. Perhaps it may be said, then, that motive is lacking: there is no evidence of substantial Proto-Uralic language spread into southwestern coastal Scandinavia, where the Germanic Sound Shift took place.

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