By Tom Rea
Tom Rea strains the evolution of clinical concept concerning dinosaurs and divulges the deception, hostility, and occasionally outright aggression found in the early years of fossil hunting. This publication info some of the most famous—and notorious—dinosaur skeletons ever stumbled on: Diplodocus carnegii, named after Andrew Carnegie.
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Additional info for Bone Wars: The Excavation Of Andrew Carnegie's Dinosaur
The bulla, which forms the ﬂoor of the tympanic region, is a mammalian innovation. When present in marsupials it usually forms from the alisphenoid, whereas in placentals it is variously constructed of the ectotympanic, entotympanic, petrosal, or a combination of these or other elements. The bony anatomy of the auditory region, particularly bullar composition, and the pattern of vascular grooves on the ventral surface of the petrosal created by branches of the internal carotid artery (which usually ﬂows through this region en route to the brain) are important considerations in mammalian systematics.
A review of the origin of mammals follows in Chapter 3, and a synopsis of mammalian evolution during the Mesozoic in Chapter 4, as 22 the beginning of the age of mammals the background to the Early Cenozoic radiation that is the principal focus of the book. The Multituberculata, a Mesozoic clade that survived into the Early Cenozoic and was a signiﬁcant constituent of many Paleocene faunas, is covered in the latter chapter. In Chapter 5 the fossil record of Metatheria from the Cretaceous through the Eocene is presented.
The articular ends of reptile limbs are covered in cartilage. Because reptile bones grow in length throughout life by gradual ossiﬁcation of this cartilage, a distinct articular surface never forms. By contrast, the articular ends, or epiphyses, of mammalian limb bones (and certain bony features associated with muscle attachment, such as the femoral trochanters) develop from separate centers of ossiﬁcation from the one that forms the shaft, or diaphysis. Growth in length occurs at the cartilaginous plates between the shaft and the epiphyses, thus allowing the formation of well-deﬁned articular surfaces, even in animals that are still growing.