Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, by Joel N. Shurkin

By Joel N. Shurkin

While William Shockley invented the transistor, the realm was once replaced without end and he used to be provided the Nobel Prize. yet at the present time Shockley is usually remembered just for his incendiary campaigning approximately race, intelligence, and genetics. His doubtful examine led him to donate to the Nobel Prize sperm financial institution and pontificate his inflammatory principles broadly, making surprising pronouncements at the uselessness of remedial schooling and the sterilization of people with IQs less than a hundred. finally his campaign destroyed his recognition and observed him vilified on nationwide tv, but he died proclaiming his paintings on race as his maximum accomplishment. Now, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Joel N. Shurkin bargains the 1st biography of this contradictory and arguable guy. With specific entry to the personal Shockley data, Shurkin supplies an unflinching account of the way such promise resulted in such ignominy.

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In any case, pastoralism and agriculture replaced hunting, fishing, and gathering as the economic basis of the society of Northern Europe and Scandinavia. The people in the Germanic homeland learned to breed and herd domestic animals for meat and milk, using slash-andburn methods to clear the forest in order to pen animals and grow grain. These technologies—agriculture, and domestication of animals to provide food—can support a much larger population per acre than hunting and fishing, and the settled lifestyle favors caring for dependent infants and children.

A prerequisite to language shift is societal bilingualism. This may remain quite stable over a long period but in the case of IndoEuropean expansions it was obviously a prelude to the adoption of Indo-European. (Mallory 1989, 258) The technological accomplishments of the newcomers would have had a halo effect on PIE, making the language attractive to peoples who had contact with the newcomers. In time the old language would die out, as there was less reason for parents to pass it on to their children.

The evidence includes both objects found in these regions, but far from their place of origin, and some very early borrowings from PIE into both Sámi (Lappish) and Finnic languages (Koivulehto 1988). Borrowing in the opposite direction, that is, Uralic loanwords in Germanic, though, is rare; even the Germanic languages’ non-Indo-European seafaring words mentioned earlier are not of Uralic origin. Perhaps it may be said, then, that motive is lacking: there is no evidence of substantial Proto-Uralic language spread into southwestern coastal Scandinavia, where the Germanic Sound Shift took place.

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