By United Nations
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Additional info for Building the architecture for sustainable space security: conference report 30-31 March 2006
The fourth article of the OST, which intends to keep space free of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), but neither defines WMD nor prohibits the deployment of other weapons, has significant shortcomings. This is a strong reason to negotiate new agreements, as is the fact that the threat or use of force in outer space is not yet prohibited. As an interim measure until such agreements are formulated, a number of transitional phases or intermediate steps, including a code of conduct, confidencebuilding measures (CBMs) and unilateral measures such as the Russian nofirst-deployment pledge could be made.
If the laser system is airborne, the issue becomes the size and weight of the instruments. Positioning a space-based laser in orbit so that it can harm its target is equally very challenging. Another issue is the type and level of damage that such weapons could cause to their target. The "defensive" MIRACL test of October 1997 produced initial information on laser damages to satellites, but further tests are deemed necessary. Currently researched technologies include: More powerful and better focused laser beam technologies to go through the atmosphere and on to LEO, where most 0 b ~ e ~ a t i o n satellites are deployed; Miniaturization and lightening of the instruments; Assessment and analysis of damages made to the target, which makes the conduct of tests necessary; dazzling and blinding tests could be commissioned by the US Air Force in 2006 or 2007; and Microwave technology is less mature than laser technology, and microwave-related programmes deal more with basic or advanced research than with weapon systems development per se.
SESSION I FUTURE AND CURRENT THREATS TO M E PEACEFUL USES OF OUTER SPACE Threats to the security of outer space: emerging technologies Laurence Nardon, lnstitut francais des relations internationales Emerging technologies can be defined as those technologies most actively researched at present, as opposed to technologies currently coming online. 5 billion. In terms of the possibilities for anti-satellite (MATS)weapons, three considerations need to be taken into account: the target; the location of the weapon itself and the level of damage required.