C++ Essentials by Sharam Hekmat

By Sharam Hekmat

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It is perfectly valid for a function to use pass-by-value for some of its parameters and pass-by-reference for others. The former is used much more often in practice. , outside functions and classes) is said to have a global scope . Thus the sample functions we have seen so far all have a global scope. Variables may also be defined at the global scope: int year = 1994; int Max (int, int); int main (void) { //... } // global variable // global function // global function Uninitialized global variables are automatically initialized to zero.

For example, the scope of min, i, and j in the above example is from where they are defined till the closing brace of the compound statement. Outside the compound statement, these variables are not defined. Because a compound statement may contain variable definitions and defines a scope for them, it is also called a block. The scope of a C++ variable is limited to the block immediately enclosing it. Blocks and scope rules will be described in more detail when we discuss functions in the next chapter.

For example: void Foo (void) { auto int xyz; //... } // same as: int xyz; This is rarely used because all local variables are by default automatic. com Chapter 4: Functions 51 Register Variables As mentioned earlier, variables generally denote memory locations where variable values are stored. , in an expression), the compiler generates machine code which accesses the memory location denoted by the variable. , loop variables), efficiency gains can be obtained by keeping the variable in a register instead thereby avoiding memory access for that variable.

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