Catalysis An Integrated Approach to Homogenous Heterogenous by Moulijn, Jacob A.; Leeuwen, P. W. N. M. van; Santen, R. A.

By Moulijn, Jacob A.; Leeuwen, P. W. N. M. van; Santen, R. A. van

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S. to produce styrene. 6 Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde is an intermediate in acetic acid and vinyl acetate production. Since 1916 it has been produced from the addition of water to acetylene, a reaction catalyzed by divalent mercury in sulphuric acid (20%)/water. Acetylene was made from coal. In Germany in particular, a lot of research was carried out on the use of acetylene as a chemical feedstock. H C K H + H20 + CH3CHO Coal was also the feedstock for synthesis gas (vide infig). Many contributions to acetylene chemistry are due to Reppe.

Commercial production of both polymers with the new catalysts started very soon after its discovery in 1954. Titanium is reduced to the trivalent state and it is generally accepted that propene insertion into the titanium alkyl bond leads to the polymer. The stereoregularity is determined by the geometry of the site of the catalytic centre. This is known as the Cossee-Arlman mechanism. The solid Tic13 catalysts contain different sites, some of which give atactic and some of which give isotactic polymer.

The first commercially successful one, developed by Chevron, contained Re besides Pt, and was much more stable. The process based on this catalyst is called ’Rheniforming’. gasoline pool was from catalytic reforming; by the late '50s this figure had risen to 30%. 5 Hydrorefining Hydrorefining is directly related to the technology developed in coal liquefaction. In this process heteroatoms, in particular S and N, are removed by catalytic hydrogenation. This is done in order to abate pollution and to prevent extensive catalyst deactivation in further catalytic processing.

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