By V.V Adushkin (Editor), I.V. Nemchinov (Editor)
An asteroid or comet will necessarily strike the Earth a few day, and very likely reason nice destruction. This quantity considers dangers as a result of collisions with cosmic items, relatively in gentle of contemporary investigations of affects via the authors. every one bankruptcy, written by means of knowledgeable, comprises an outline of a side and new findings within the box. assurance describes and numerically estimates the most damaging results.
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Additional info for Catastrophic Events Caused by Cosmic Objects
An interesting feature is that at this moment a large mass of air lifted behind the shock wave begins to fall back due to gravity. The explosion products are concentrated mainly in a vortex at altitudes of 20–30 km. For impacts with such energies, the process of cloud rising is influenced not only by the nonuniformity of the atmosphere, but by the wake as well. 2 Contamination of the Cloud by Ejecta of Small Impacts For small impacts dust is entrained in the cloud due to soil erosion, as in nuclear explosions above and on the ground.
Therefore, at high altitudes the emitted radiation is transferred through clear air. The thickness of a layer from the tropopause to the ground is less than the visibility range 20 km for clear skies; but visibility plays an important role at large distance from the epicenter. Therefore, one can estimate that the radius of fire ignition does not exceed about 50 km, the visibility of a very clear atmosphere. 3 Injuries The radiation emitted by the fireball may cause injury to people. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki 20–30% of persons were injured by direct action of radiation impulse (Glasstone and Dolan 1977).
1965). 5 km. For seismic waves of an earthquake there is the following Gutenberg-Richter empirical relation between the earthquake magnitude M and the seismic energy Es (Gutenberg and Richter 1954; Kasahara 1981; Sadovsky et al. 1987) lgE s = 4 8 + 3/2 M (17a) where Es is the energy in Joules, or lg E s = −10 8 · + 3/2 M (17b) where Es is in Mt TNT. It should be stressed that the Equation (17) is not a strict physical law; it was obtained using empirical data and a multitude of assumptions. Among them is a simplified shape of seismic waves, a train of n sinusoidal waves with an amplitude a0 and a period T0 emitted from a source at a depth h.